Genetic variations predisposing to different cancers

Genetic variations predisposing to different cancers

Genetic variations especially on chromosome 9p21 are associated with an increased risk of developing brain and skin cancers, according to five studies published Sunday in the journal Nature Genetics.

A study conducted by the MDAnderson Center (University of Texas, USA) and the London Cancer Research Institute found variations associated with an increased risk of glioma in 5 genes including the CDKN2A gene located on chromosome 9.

Gliomas are the most common brain tumors in adults.

An American study from the University of California (San Francisco) and the Mayo Clinic showed a link between variations on chromosome 9 and an aggressive form of brain cancer, glioblastoma.

"This is not a reason why individuals with these genetic variations pass a CT scan every year," however tempered Robert Jenkins, one of the authors of the study, highlighting the role of environmental factors in the development of cancers.

Genetic variations on chromosome 9p21 associated with an increased risk of melanoma, the most serious skin cancer, have also been identified in two studies, one conducted in both Europe and Australia.

Finally genetic variations, including one on chromosome 9p21, are also associated with an increased risk of basal cell carcinoma, the most common form of skin cancer, according to researchers at deCode Genetics.

The main known risk factor for skin cancer is sun exposure.

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The saliva of a tick, hope of Brazilian researchers to cure cancer.

The saliva of a tick, hope of Brazilian researchers to cure cancer

The tick does not transmit not only infectious diseases: its saliva also contains a protein that could cure cancers of the skin, liver and pancreas, according to Brazilian researchers.

By studying a South American specimen of this blood-sucking parasite, Amblyomma cajennense, they discovered that this Photoprotein destroys cancer cells while sparing healthy cells.

"This is a major breakthrough," says Ana Marisa Chudzinski-Tavassi, a researcher in molecular biology at the Butantan Institute in Sao Paulo.

"The substance contained in the saliva of this tick ... could be the cure for cancer," she told AFP.

The researcher says she accidentally discovered the virtues of this protein, called Active Factor X, by testing the anti-coagulant properties of tick saliva, which allow the parasite to gorse itself on the blood of animals or humans to which it is attached. 'attack.

The protein has common characteristics with a widespread anti-coagulant called TFPI, or Kunitz inhibitor, which also acts on cell growth.

Lab tests were then conducted to see if the protein produced effects on the cancer cells and their results exceeded all researchers' expectations.

"To our surprise, she did not kill the healthy cells, which were also tested," says Ms. Chudzinski-Tavassi. "But she killed the cancer cells that were analyzed."

In her modest laboratory of the institute, with decrepit walls, the researcher collects saliva from ticks by placing straws under their heads.

The few drops thus collected are then reproduced in yeast tanks to carry out tests on cancer laboratory rats.

The results are more than promising.

"If I treat a small tumor of an animal daily for 14 days, this tumor does not develop and even, it decreases. The mass of the tumor decreases. And if you treat it for 42 days, the tumor disappears completely, "says the researcher.

To produce a drug, however, will require years of clinical testing and large investments, two things that Brazil can not provide at the moment.

"To make a discovery is one thing. Turning it into a drug is another totally different, "says Chudzinski-Tavassi.

In the meantime, she has filed a patent application for the protein of this tick and travels the world to present his discovery, which has also been the subject of publications in medical journals.

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New molecules against lung cancer.

New molecules against lung cancer

The lung cancer also called: Mesothelioma

The team of Dr. Janne of the Institute against cancer Brigham Hospital Boston has uncovered new molecules that can treat treatment-resistant forms of lung cancer.

The researchers performed tests on mice with non-small cell lung cancer. These types of cancer account for 70 to 80% of all lung cancers found: some carry a specific mutation leading to the production of a protein called epidermal growth factor (EGFR).

There are drugs capable of blocking the action of the receptors of this protein, but genetic mutations have been observed on certain tumors, giving rise to resistance to these treatments. The new molecules developed by Dr. Janne's team attack mutations while inhibiting the production of the protein. The researchers hope that these molecules will be better tolerated than the current inhibitory drugs. They must now prove the effectiveness of their discovery on a human scale but remain very optimistic about its potential.

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Antibody gives new hope for ovarian cancer treatment.

Antibody gives new hope for ovarian cancer treatment

A research team from the Vienna's Faculty of Medicine has highlighted the effects of an antibody, known as AD5-10, in the fight against ovarian cancer, offering new treatment prospects, according to a study released Monday.

This AD5-10 protein decreases the resistance of cancer cells to the protective mechanism of the human body. "We have been able to show, both on cultured cells and on animals, that TRAIL-resistant ovarian cancer tumors (the protein that activates suicide, apoptosis, unwanted cells, ed) are once again becoming commonplace. sensitive, if TRAIL and AD5-10 were present at the same time, "said the study leader, Professor Michael Krainer, quoted in a statement.

The AD5-10 is anchored to the cancer cell in a different location than the TRAIL, which could explain its effect, according to the researchers.

In another battery of tests, Professor Krainer's team has also been able to prove that the AD5-10 antibody makes it possible to increase the effectiveness of several drugs used for chemotherapy.

"The combined effects of AD5-10 and carboplatin-a molecule used frequently in chemotherapeutic treatments-are greater than administered separately, according to culture tests. In addition, the AD5-10 can eliminate carboplatin resistance, according to animal tests, "said Professor Krainer.

The effects of the AD5-10 antibody are triggered only in the presence of NK lymphocytes, so-called cell killers, in the tumor environment, the Austrian team also noted.

Aspirin prevents colorectal cancer.

Aspirin prevents colorectal cancer

The patients at very high genetic risk could benefit.

The hope of a preventive treatment of cancer animates all the researchers but also the people presenting high risks. This is the case of those with Lynch syndrome, a genetic abnormality that significantly increases the risk of cancer, including colorectal but also other organs such as the endometrium. In this rare syndrome, which remains the most common cause of inherited colorectal cancer, patients must undergo colonoscopies at most every two years from the age of 20 years. The goal is of course to detect early colo-rectal cancer that is known to affect more than one of these patients in three.

The study published Friday in the international journal The Lancet, should give some hope to those patients for whom the average age of discovery of colorectal cancer is 42 years (sometimes even before 25 years). This work indeed demonstrates the preventive role of aspirin. In more than 850 people, half taking aspirin and half taking a placebo, it appears that patients who took 600 mg of aspirin daily for 2 years had a reduced risk of colorectal cancer. one third compared to those taking a placebo (inactive product). And that without particular adverse effects. The authors observed 18 cancers for 427 patients in the aspirin group against 30 for 434 patients treated with placebo.

A solid foundation

In 2008, these same researchers had not demonstrated the efficacy of aspirin in this study. It was by prolonging the surveillance of these patients who took aspirin for more than two years that they became aware of the preventive effect of aspirin. After two years, the difference between the two groups began to appear but was still statistically insufficient to draw any conclusions.

Cautious optimism of Dr. David Malka, digestive oncologist at the Institut Gustave-Roussy (Villejuif): "This is a study that could add a new weapon next to the surveillance of patients by colonoscopy," he says. This time, Professor John Burn (Institute of Genetic Medicine, University of Newcastle) and his colleagues are more categorical: "Our results, put in perspective with other recent research, provide a solid basis for recommending aspirin in systematic prevention. in Lynch syndrome, "they write in The Lancet. According to them, what remains is to define the right dose and the right duration of treatment.

Experts are surprised, however, to obtain this result while the number of polyps detected by colonoscopy was identical that patients take aspirin or placebo. The theory is that polyps are the first step before a possible transformation into cancer. Can these results obtained in patients at very high risk, because of their genetic disease, be extrapolated to other categories? What is the benefit / risk ratio of treatment in these cases, because of the risk of bleeding associated with aspirin? For the moment, the results obtained with the low doses of aspirin used in the prevention of recurrence of cardiovascular events, generally less than 100 mg per day, have not shown any interest in reducing the risk of cancer. -rectal. In contrast, for patients with colorectal cancer treated, studies have shown a preventive but moderate effect of aspirin. It is still too early to dare a general recommendation aside from Lynch Syndrome.

New cancer vaccine to boost immune system delivers excellent results.

New "cancer vaccine" to boost immune system delivers excellent results

American researchers have developed a revolutionary treatment to fight cancer. Based on a stimulation of the immune system, the method that can be likened to an anti-cancer "vaccine" promises results of formidable effectiveness. With almost no side effects, it is able, in the mouse for the moment, to eliminate both a tumor and all of its metastases. An unprecedented feat made possible by a simple localized injection.

Despite the current huge medical progress, a scourge is still very difficult to eradicate: cancer. Whatever the causes, lifestyle, diet or environment, the fact remains that tumors continue to endanger the lives of millions of patients around the world. Recently, a treatment of a new kind nevertheless offers the hope of eventually leading, one day, to a total disappearance of the disease.

Current treatments are numerous, and more and more efficient. Conventional chemotherapy gradually leaves room for innovative methods of immunotherapy, which nevertheless retain a number of disadvantages. Long and expensive, such approaches do not spare patients, in addition, serious side effects.

Published yesterday in the journal Science Translational Medicine, the work of researchers from the faculty of medicine at Stanford University in the United States may well revolutionize the treatment of cancer. And for good reason, the method developed by American scientists is able to stop both the development of the tumor itself, but also that of its metastases, tumor cells that grow away from the main site of the disease.

Local and generalized effects

The technique applies, however, directly, only to the area of ​​origin of the cancer. It consists of the injection directly into the tumor, a tiny amount of a substance composed of two agents capable of locally stimulating the immune system. The duo of substances has the power to reactivate cancer-specific T lymphocytes, cells designed to stop development, but which are unfortunately put to sleep within the tumor itself. "Our approach uses a unique application of very small amounts of two agents to stimulate immune cells only inside the tumor itself," says Dr. Ronald Levy, professor of oncology at Stanford University and a member of the team behind the innovation.

A few micrograms of this promising antidote therefore seem to be enough to eliminate the tumor mass and its widespread metastases in the body. The effectiveness of the mechanism is at least for now at least proven in mice, rodents on which scientists have tested their new "cancer vaccine".

An incredible cure rate

The researchers recovered 87 of the 90 guinea pigs involved in the experimental treatment. A great success that is explained by the nature and mode of action of the two substances involved. The first is none other than a "CpG oligonucleotide", a specific DNA molecule with a single strand. Its ally, meanwhile, takes the form of an antibody, a protein of the immune system capable of neutralizing pathogens.

Hand in hand, the two agents will both stimulate the T cells trapped in the tumor, but also allow the release of a portion of them in the body, to other cells affected by cancer. A double effect that ultimately leads to the destruction of the tumor itself, but also its distant metastases, the guarantee of permanently eliminating cancer.

Based on the stimulation of the immune system, which the body is naturally endowed with, the method has very few side effects. Its universal character also promises the treatment of a multitude of types of cancers. "I do not think there is a limit to the types of tumors we could potentially treat, as long as they have been infiltrated by the immune system," says Professor Ronald Levy.

A success in animals that requires, however, to be confirmed for humans. To ensure this, US researchers initiated a clinical trial of fifteen patients with a particular type of mildly aggressive cancer, low-grade lymphoma. If they prove conclusive, these experiments could pave the way for a more effective and less painful cancer treatment for patients. Oncological medicine may well be at the dawn of a revolution.

How to engage a mesothelioma law suit.

Mesothelioma Lawsuits

Mesothelioma is caused by long term asbestos exposure. In most cases, this exposure could have been prevented. Lawsuits are filed against the people responsible for a person’s exposure. Most lawsuits never make it to trial. Most defendants pay out-of-court settlements. Learn here how to get involved in a law-suit and get high mesothelioma compensation.

Filing a Mesothelioma Lawsuit and Get High Compensation

Lawsuits are time sensitive. This means that there is a limit as to when you can file a successful mesothelioma lawsuit and compensation. Normally the lawsuit is filed in the state in which you were exposed to asbestos. You’ll need to find an asbestos attorney or lawyer who has a license to file a mesothelioma lawsuit in that state. The regulations in each state vary. Your mesothelioma attorney can find out which state (or states in some cases) the lawsuit should be filed.

Mesothelioma lawsuits involve first filing the claim to get compensation, then receiving a response. After the response, there is a discovery phase in which both parties unveil the information regarding your asbestos exposure.

Here are the steps of a typical mesothelioma lawsuit:

  • Preparation
  • Filing
  • Response
  • Discovery
  • Settlement
  • Compensation

Most cases settle out of court. This happens when your attorney negotiates a dollar amount that the defendant is willing to pay (the compensation). If the settlement amount cannot be reached, the case will go to trial.

A jury will determine if you have a case and how much money you should receive. It’s important to note that a favorable trial verdict is not a guarantee. If you receive an unfavorable verdict, the last option is filing an appeal. The defendant can also appeal if you win your verdict.

You should expect that your lawyer will help you at every stage in the process. Each person’s case is unique, but they generally follow roughly the same legal process. Your attorney will do the work for you.

DID YOU KNOW? Most attorneys recommend taking an out-of-court settlement. That’s because you guarantee that you and your family get a sum of money by settling out of court. There’s no guarantee you will receive compensation if your case goes to trial.

Preparing Your Case – Step 1

In the beginning, your attorney will collect all the information necessary to determine if you have a claim. This includes medical records and a history of your past employment and military service. It also includes creating a detailed asbestos exposure history. Even if you aren’t sure where your asbestos exposure came from, your lawyer will help you. Top mesothelioma law firms have resources to determine when and where asbestos exposure happened and for how long.

Your lawyer will evaluate the information you provide and find out which court should be the recipient of your claim. Sometimes, more than one court will receive your claim.

DID YOU KNOW?

The military isn’t responsible for your disease. It was the manufacturers who were aware of the dangers of their asbestos products. It’s true that army engineers called for asbestos in hundreds of military applications. But it was the asbestos companies that supplied the deadly substance while knowing the risk.

Filing the Complaint – Step 2

Your attorney will need to file a written complaint with the courts within the jurisdiction that the asbestos exposure occurred. This written complaint begins the entire legal process. Your attorney will use the information gathered in preparation to write your complaint.

The Response – Step 3

The defendant or defendants in your lawsuit will get a copy of the written complaint and hire their own lawyers. They have a chance to respond to your complaint by gathering their own information regarding your employment and your health history. After receiving the complaint, the defendant usually has about thirty days to respond. Most of the time, the defendant will deny that they are responsible for your illness and will blame it on something else. Be prepared for this. It is a typical part of legal strategy for defendants in any lawsuit.

Discovery and Collecting Evidence – Step 4

In the discovery stage, the attorneys will start collecting evidence from the asbestos companies. At the same time, the defendants will begin collecting their own evidence. You may be asked questions about your illness and your asbestos exposure by the defendant’s attorneys. Usually there will be written questions, but sometimes you will have to undergo a deposition. Depositions are used to collect evidence. During a deposition you tell the defendant and your lawyer, in words, about your medical history and occupational history. You may be asked to provide information on a video tape. Your attorney will prepare you to answer any potential questions at the deposition.

DID YOU KNOW?

The legal system doesn’t place many restrictions on what kind of evidence can be collected during discovery. “It must be generally relevant in some way although, technically, courts will allow the parties to ask for anything that is reasonably calculated to lead to discoverable evidence,” according to a LexisNexis Legal Newsroom article.

The discovery process may take several months, but this step can be shortened if you are extremely ill. The defendant’s attorneys will hunt for other reasons why you might have developed mesothelioma. They will ask you questions about your other employers and your health habits. The defendant may ask questions of your co-workers, your doctors, your family and anyone else related to the case.

Settling a Mesothelioma Lawsuit – Step 5

It’s highly unlikely you will have to take the case to a jury trial. By most estimates, over 90 percent of lawsuits settle out of court. The attorneys from the defendant may decide the case is too risky to take to trial. In this case they will offer you a sum of money to settle the case. The attorneys will battle back and forth in order to arrive at a settlement that is satisfactory to both parties. If no settlement can be decided upon, the case will go on to trial.

Mesothelioma Trials – Optional

In this step, the case goes to trial in front of a jury who will decide the outcome of the case. If you win, the jury will decide how much you should receive. On occasion, the trial will just be held in front of a judge who will decide on the case. In both cases, you may have to go to court and testify as to your illness and your occupational history.

The goal of taking your case to court is getting a favorable verdict. The verdict is a decision by a judge or jury on who won the lawsuit. Your lawyer is only likely to let your lawsuit go to trial if there’s no doubt that you will win. Your lawyer may aim for a jury verdict if the defendant has a history of losing cases. Or they might go to court if the settlement offered by the defendant is offensively low. No matter the situation, it is ultimately your decision whether or not the case goes to trial. You can always take the safe route and settle for a guaranteed sum of money.

Appeals – Optional

Regardless of who wins the case, there may be an appeal in which another court is asked to make sure all of the legalities of the case were handled correctly. There is a short period of time before an appeal can be filed, usually between 30 and 160 days. If the higher court upholds the ruling of the lower court and you are owed money, this is when you will receive financial compensation for your mesothelioma cancer.

Should You File a Mesothelioma Lawsuit?

Nearly all mesothelioma patients are victims of corporate neglect. Evidence clearly shows that companies hid the dangers of asbestos from its employees and the public for decades. If you have mesothelioma you should talk to a lawyer about your situation. They can determine if your asbestos exposure history is sufficient to file a winning lawsuit.

Things you should look for in an attorney:

Offers free consultation about your case. Works on contingency fee (you only pay if you get a settlement) Has your best interest in mind, from treatment to family Good mesothelioma lawyers will review your situation and decide which kinds of claims to make. In many cases, mesothelioma patients are eligible for payment from an asbestos trust fund. Find out if there’s trust fund money for you right now.

Why you should find a layer immediately after mesothelioma diagnosis

Victim of asbestos: how to be compensated?

Directorate of Legal and Administrative Information (Prime Minister Office)

People exposed to asbestos (or their beneficiaries) can obtain compensation for damages caused by this exposure (medical expenses, loss of income ...). The claim must be submitted to the Asbestos Victims Compensation Fund (Fiva), which has the task of examining the files and deciding whether or not to recognize a right to compensation.

Who is concerned ?

Compensation by the Asbestos Victims Compensation Fund (Fiva) is open to mesothelioma or anyone exposed to asbestos, whether their disease is recognized as occupational or non-occupational or to the person entitled (child, spouse, etc.) of a person exposed to asbestos whose death is due to this exposure.

Amount of compensation

The amount of the compensation is fixed by the Fiva, according to each situation.

The purpose of compensation is to enable asbestos victims to receive full compensation for all injuries suffered:

-Medical fees -Loss of income -Employment of a home help -Moral prejudice in case of loss of a loved one

In most case, once you have been diagnosied, chance of survival diminishes very fast.

You should find a lawyers as fast as you can. Negociations with companies are usually very labourious and complicated and long in time. The earlier you begin the better.

How to find the best lawyer to defend my mesothelioma cause

YOU ARE A VICTIM OF ASBESTOS

You have been exposed to the dangers of asbestos and have developed pleural plaques, asbestosis or mesothelioma pleural cancer, bronchial cancer, or other health problems specifically related to asbestos exposure.

Your personal injury is mild, moderate or very serious. You want to get a fair compensation for your personal injury as a victim of asbestos.

The victim is dead: you are the right holder. You can obtain compensation for non-pecuniary damage and economic loss.

YOU WANT TO GET JUST COMPENSATION FOR INJURY FROM ASBESTOS

The legal ways are diverse: true occupational diseases, the affections can reveal an "inexcusable fault" of the employer likely to initiate a action against this last one. Indeed, the only fault of most victims of asbestos is simply having worked for many years, exposed to asbestos while the dangers are known since the beginning of the last century ...

That said, the creation of the FIVA (Asbestos Victims Compensation Fund) provides a guarantee of compensation to victims of asbestos contamination.

In this process of asbestos compensation, the intervention of the lawyer will allow you to be recognized as a victim, whose diseases have been unfairly caused by the irresponsibility of some. If you entrust me with your file, here is what I will do for you:

Helping you to gather the documents and strategic documents that will ensure compensation for your injury: exposure to asbestos and proven damage to health must be established.

Present your file to FIVA (Asbestos Indians Compensation Fund) and defend your interests.

Engage in an "inexcusable misconduct" proceeding against the employer who exposed you to the dangers of asbestos. If necessary, defend your rights to asbestos compensation under a provident contract with a private insurer.

Mesothelioma the lung cancer.

Mesothelioma the lung cancer.

Most people who has been exposed to asbestos may think it’s too late to take action or to avoid developing the unfamous mesothelioma and other asbestos-related cancers, but this is a common misconception. There are many actions you can take to lower your risk of cancer.

It has been a long battle against the industry using asbestos in many different materials, mainly insulation.

Because asbestos stands still in many places we live in and work, it is very important to educate everyone about asbestos safety. Asbestos awareness can help prevent most asbestos exposure, which can cause mesothelioma and other health issues.

During most of the 20th century, many manufacturers added toxic asbestos to tons of products. Many of these items, mainly building construction materials, can still be found in houses, and building of all kinds across the U.S. and Canada.

Workers in certain industries keep evolving in asbestos on the job, including works in shipyards, power plants, chemical plants or in the railroad and automotive industries.

For many decades, most sensitive workers and the publin in general had no idea about their asbestos exposure could lead to very serious diseases like maligant mesothelioma, lung cancer and asbestosis.

Some companies even voluntary hid the high health risks of asbestos from their unfortunate employees. Today, however, more people are aware of the dangers, especially those who work in industries that traditionally used the toxic mineral.

There may be now many rules and regulations, but the best way to avoid mesothelioma problems is too be aware of asbestos presence and take action against it by simply replacing the products with new safe materials.